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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Spotify, the music streaming service, plans to list existing private shares directly on the New York Stock Exchange as soon as the fourth quarter rather than doing a formal IPO, while other large, well-known tech companies for now were seen as more likely prospects for 2018, bankers said.

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Staff numbers at insurance agencies also rose by 936,200 to a total of more than 5.6m people.
他回忆称:“我曾认为教书不是一个合适的职业选择。我的老师告诉我,如果我想当一名老师,就得有很强的忍耐力,不能轻易感到厌倦。”
Nobel economists like Joseph Stiglitz, environmental activists like Bill McKibben, George Soros and the Institute for New Economic Thinking, politicians like Al Gore and other modern thinkers all warn us that traditional economists (and the banks, businesses and government agencies they work for) are addicted to bad economic theories, And they're sabotaging America's future.

In 2010, the Martin Aircraft Company introduced a jetpack it called "the world's first piratical jetpack." The jetpack even won a spot in Time's Top 50 Inventions of 2010. While its development has been on since 1981, the world's first jetpack is known to have flown in 1958. It was designed by Wendell Moore, a researcher at Bells Aerosystems. Early prototypes of Wendell's jetpack could reach a height of 5 meters (16 ft) and remain airborne for three minutes. This attracted the attention of the US Army, which funded the project with $150,000. Several test flights were later done for the US Army and even for JFK himself. The army later stopped paying for more research into the project because the flight time and distance were not convincing enough. NASA also wanted to use the jetpack for their Apollo 11 mission to serve as backups in case their lunar module malfunctioned. They later changed their minds, going for the lunar rover instead. After this setback, Bell discontinued further research on the jetpack.
除了作为微信核心的私聊和群卿功能之外,用户还可以通过“漂流瓶”功能寻找新的好友,具体方法是录制一段信息装在虚拟的“瓶子”里扔出去,等陌生人捡起来回复。“查看附近的人”功能与一些手机交友应用相似,用户通过它可以浏览附近其他用户的资料。另外还有一个名叫“朋友圈”的功能,用户通过它可以将相册公开分享给好友群,跟照片分享应用Instagram很像。
Social networking platforms, including Weibo and mobile app WeChat, proved to be the best tools for cyberstars to magnify the power of communication, making it possible to create an industry that combines advertisements, e-commerce and fans.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

统计局:住宅销量温和上涨 房企开发意愿有限

精准加力补短板。
In the past six months alone, the Australian-born company fortified its senior executive ranks with high-profile hires from Amazon, PayPal, Google, and Twitter. It brokered a high-profile deal with Magento, the market leader, that promises to bring thousands of new customers to it. And it broke the lease on its new San Francisco office because it is hiring so quickly that it now needs triple the space it originally anticipated.
The fundamentals of the Chinese economy remain sound, the capital adequacy ratio and provision coverage of commercial bans remain high, and we have many financial tools and instruments that can be used. We have the confidence, the ability, and the means to forestall systemic risks.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Central China's Hubei province surpassed Hebei province for the first time to rank 7th with 3.2 trillion yuan, up 8.1 percent.
给你我无尽的新的祝福,让它们成为我们永恒友谊的新的纪念。
1.Deadpool

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • If Lloyd Grossman were to go through the keyholes of Oscar winners’ houses, he would find their golden statues in various spots: from prime real estate such as the mantelpiece to the depths of cupboards collecting dust.
  • “伪治理”救不了“真污染” 家居污染认知误区
  • 需要快速发送大到2GB的大型文件?不妨试试WeTransfer.com。你甚至不需要建立账户,我几乎每天都用它传文件。
  • 智能家居掀起行业革命 跨界家电抢风头
  • 板材甲醛释放新国标将出台 要求将更严
  • 纽约人向专栏提出的问题,不仅取决于他们的个人情况,还取决于当今的重大问题,比如住房成本上升、士绅化、豆腐渣工程。最终,2014年成为了一个一切都在增长的年份,增长的包括房价、租金,以及最重要的——楼盘数量。根据纽约房地产委员会(Real Estate Board of New York)的数据,10月批准建设的单元达到了16700套。
    A Datafolha polling group survey published in the Folha de S. Paulo newspaper showed that at Saturday's Brazil versus Chile match, 67 percent of attendees classified themselves as white and 90 percent came from Brazil's top two economic classes, which represent about 15 percent of the country's population.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 陕西西安严查“租房贷”, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

海螺水泥逆势扩产陷租地采矿纠纷

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

“收信贷”“降杠杆”能否真正遏制炒房热?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Last month scientists at Illinois University made a breakthrough that could herald a second green revolution for world agriculture – they improved the efficiency of photosynthesis, the process by which plants turn sunlight into the biomass that is the source of all our food.
    [kri'eitiv]
  • 12岁的年纪,大多数的小女孩都还在向父母争取打耳洞的机会,努力适应高中生活,从青少年时代开始为将来做准备。
    报告显示,今年11月11日至15日五天期间,涉及电商平台、电商企业、物流公司、第三方支付机构、消费者等主体的失信案例数量同比增加57.49%。
    每个月,梦工厂(DreamWorks)的员工都能收到价值25美元的消费券,可在位于格伦代尔和雷德伍德城园区的“梦工厂打印中心”消费。由于只收取原材料费用,该工作室能以低价向员工提供各类服务,例如在贺卡上打印照片、制作个性化日历等。
    不过,企业在年终奖上的吝啬,造成的影响可能不仅仅是破坏员工的春节假期,还可能回头反噬雇主:39%的回复者表示如果年终奖不能恢复正常,他们会另谋高就,这一比例比2015年高了2.3个百分点。
    你一直感到压力很大

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家居业进入“上市爆发期” 业内质疑“为圈钱”
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 湖北鄂州:实施建筑房地产税收一体化管理

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Inside Obama's Chicago campaign headquarters, staffers erupted into cheers and high fives as state after state was called for the president。
7. Viceroy's House
The average salary of St Gallen’s alumni jumped to $102,000 three years after graduation compared with $90,000 last year.
Security questions risks
Some of my work has been set inAmerica, so I am very pleased and honored that my work is loved here.
Yesterday, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and Bank of China — two of the Big Four state-owned banks — both reported that full-year net profits had risen by less than 2 per cent in 2015.
Most common passwords of 2013:

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • After working for half a year, the average monthly income for 2014 graduates is RMB3,487, a significant increase from RMB3,250 in 2013 and RMB3,048 in 2012.
  • 金九银十 躲避N个老房翻新陷阱
  • 在全球最具价值品牌百强榜上,有15个中国品牌上榜,比去年多一个,较10年前大有增加,当时中国移动(China Mobile)是唯一上榜的中国品牌。
    The number of initial public offerings (IPO) and the amount of funds raised in the Chinese mainland's A-share market fell sharply year-on-year during the first half of 2016, according to statistics released by PwC last Monday.
  • 一季度国内大宗物业交易额超530亿
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 对投资者来说,这一切都是坏消息。而现在恰好是美国30年债券牛市行情即将终结的时候。
    同比来看,65个城市的房价同比上涨,5个城市房价同比下跌,
  • 来自荷兰的Anita Eerland和Rolf Zwaan,以及来自秘鲁的Tulio Guadalupe被授予心理学奖,其研究题目是《向左倚靠会让埃菲尔铁塔看上去更小一些》。
    fare
  • 单词confident 联想记忆:
    反对:《至暗时刻》目前还没有被一所影评机构评为最佳电影。
  • 他还贴出了一张自己看着一群种族多元化儿童的图片。
    Allianz
    我的同事Sylvia Guinan让我意识到,热爱足球的丈夫应该告诉他的妻子在2014世界杯期间需要注意的一些事情。
  • Grab your rolling bag, and pack your patience. The holiday air travel season is about to begin. And if you want to have a stress-free trip, the best advice we can give is to fly west.
    Don't mistake the lack of a late flurry for an uneventful deadline:
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 高端光伏幕墙钱景可期 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

句容部署水泥制造和石材加工企业粉尘危害专项治理工作

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

供需双向回落 多城土地流拍

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

红木市场冷清 业内称红木家具价格已经触底

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

防水行业今年逆势增长 业内称将迎来“大洗牌”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Dawn Hudson, Academy CEO:
  • 7. "Suits" (2.6 million)
  • 户均住房1套不够住 何不依据人口流向调整土地

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 衣服。要买那种又贵又紧的定制款,达到下一秒纽扣就会被胸肌爆开的效果。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Denmark, for instance, is 88 percent white Danish today — hardly a majority in jeopardy. But a generation ago, in 1980, it was 97 percent white. The anti-immigrant Danish People’s Party is now the second-largest party in the Danish Parliament. In Germany, where the foreign-born population shot up by approximately 75 percent between 2011 and 2015, the anti-immigrant, populist Alternative for Germany party is now drawing record support.
    卓越雇主排名:25
    Do you feel any of your worksare underrated or wished was a little bit more popular?
  • Of course, the recovery of the job market has been, and probably will remain, incremental. Job growth needs to be much stronger to actually make a big dent in unemployment, which remains high at 7.9%, though down from 10% three years ago.[qh]

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 与此同时,达洛伊西奥开始环游世界,到处参加会议,并结识其他潜在的投资人。他给每一位结识的人都留下极深的印象。温布尔顿国王学院中学(King’s College School)的校长安德鲁?霍尔斯(Andrew Halls)评价道,他成熟得可怕,他在各种状况下仍保持着清晰的思维,这令我这个54岁的人都觉得惊讶。
  • 楼市调控加码影响成交 2017年成交量或持续走低
  • Overall, 36 percent point to end times and 63 percent to climate change.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 楼市调控政策继续加码 热点城市成交持续缩量
  • Household substance abuse
  • 西安共整治“大棚房”问题点位7812个
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

广州一二手楼市2月成交量持续走低

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京楼市调控目标继续不动摇 拟将个体租金纳入监测监管
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 广州:物业合同到期不退出 业主有权拒付物管费
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The people of both countries have the wisdom to properly manage their differences, there is a need and there are also conditions for us to continue to expand our common interests.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

At New Year and always, may peace and love fill your heart, beauty fill your world, and contentment and joy fill your days.新年的祝福,平日的希冀,愿你心境祥和、充满爱意,愿你的世界全是美满,愿你一切称心如意,快乐无比。
As if 2016 hadn’t been hard enough for China’s workforce, an annual survey has revealed that more than half of the country’s white-collar employees got no year-end bonus ahead of the upcoming (and costly) lunar new year holiday.
精算师的工作是对风险给出一个经济数值。例如,飓风摧毁一幢临海别墅的可能性,或某养老制度的长期负债。CareerCast.com的出版人托尼李(Tony Lee)说,在一个充满各种自然和人为风险的世界,精算行业正蓬勃发展。他还说,精算师人才目前有很大缺口,所以其薪资还在不断上涨。(据美国劳工部统计,2010年精算师的薪资中值为87,650美元。)
The Pelicans have struggle to attract and keep free agents, they must retain Jrue Holiday this summer, Cousins is from nearby Alabama and enjoys a close friendship with Anthony Davis, and years of disappointing and injury-plagued seasons put the franchise in a position where it seemed to be teetering on perennial also-ran status.
报告还显示,2012年以来,企业养老保险累计结余虽不断扩大,但可支付月数由2012年的19.7个月下降至2015年的17.7个月。
Halloween is just a few days away. Which means, if you haven’t gotten your costume or decorations sorted out yet, you might want to start doing that pretty soon.
就算利润率更低(比如40%),并且替代率为1/3(即全价iPhone的客户流失三分之一),低价iPhone也能提高苹果的营收和毛利润(见上表)。
Spider-Man: Homecoming
《美国谍梦》(The Americans):FX频道的这部电视剧以里根时代为背景,它和剧中两位伪装成美国郊区夫妻的克格勃间谍一样具有欺骗性:第二季表面上看是冷战惊悚剧,实际上是关于爱情、家庭、友谊和猜忌的情节剧。
从化石燃料转向可再生能源,无疑是我们这个时代最重要的工程挑战和科学挑战。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

商品房待售面积7亿平米攀新高 各地开药方去库存

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 9月,苹果iPhone 6s和6s Plus发售,在中国创下销售记录。中国占苹果公司总营收的逾四分之一。在这里,苹果的产品往往被视为地位的象征,它的竞争对手不仅有来自韩国的劲敌三星(Samsung),还有日益流行的中国智能手机品牌华为和小米。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 为了尝试遏制煤炭消耗量的增长,中国正在可再生能源和核能领域投入巨资,但尽管付出了这些努力,中国迄今为止依然是最大的温室气体排放国。中国每年因化石燃料燃烧和水泥生产排放100亿吨二氧化碳,几乎是美国的两倍,但美国的人均排放量依然远远高于中国。
  • 毕业租房要防“坑”
  • The dollar value of outbound shipments from China rose 12.3 per cent year on year in November, lifting from a revised pace of 6.8 per cent in October, and smashing a median forecast of 5 per cent from economists polled by Reuters.
  • 后五一装修季 看市场中那些靠谱好涂料
  • China is spending heavily on renewable and nuclear energy as it tries to slow the growth of coal, but despite those efforts it has become by far the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Its emissions of 10 billion tons a year of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacturing are almost twice those of the United States, though emissions per person are still far higher in the United States.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 9年前买房子终过户:4年间房价从40万涨到200万
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • adj. 粗糙的,粗略的,粗暴的,艰难的,讨厌的,不适的
  • 改编自上世纪70年代真实贿赂事件的影片《美国骗局》当晚表现更加抢眼,埃米?亚当斯(Amy Adams)和珍妮弗?劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)凭此片分获最佳女主角和最佳女配角奖。《为奴十二年》虽在提名数量上与《美国骗局》打平,参与了七个奖项的角逐,但当晚只摘得最佳剧情片一个奖项。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

“双十一”买家具避免陷阱 低价产品要看好细则

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